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IRRIGATION FUNDAMENTALS is a comprehensive text on the basic principles and practices of applied agricultural irrigation. Written over a period of more than 10 years, it is based on the authors'' extensive experience in farming, consulting, research, teaching, and other related agricultural activities. The book is for use by teachers of introductory courses in irrigation, farmers who have some basic technical knowledge, and for administrators who need a general understanding of irrigation as an aid for policy decisions in water resource development and planning. Various factors that influence crop yield and production including climate, fertility, water, drainage, and agronomic practices are addressed. The various irrigation methods such as border, basin, contour, furrow, sub, sprinkle, and drip or trickle are described; and conditions are given for selection of the appropriate method to use. Recent developments and new technology are included herein when they have obvious practical applications, but for the most part the material presented in this book is based on well established principles and practices. Much of the content is very practical and much is essentially nontechnical. Nevertheless, some of the material covered in this book goes beyond the basic concepts in an attempt to better describe the relationships and techniques employed by irrigation scientists and irrigation engineers.From the Preface: The future of the world depends very much on how we manage natural resources. Since the year 1900 there has been a ninefold increase in global carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels, and the world population has increased about 3.7 times in this century. Vast areas of forests have been destroyed, and irrigated lands now produce 40% of the food supply. Due to depletion of groundwater reserves and an increase in population, irrigated area per capita is declining. Consequently, the irrigation of additional alluvial lands is a strategic necessity for all of humankind. Much of the alluvial lands cannot be made productive without prior development of water resources through flood control, drainage, and irrigation. The production of electricity through hydropower and the production of alcohol fuel from irrigated crops, as has been practiced for many years in Brazil, can slow the increase in carbon emissions. Such diverse developments are typically not separable; rather, they must be considered as integral parts of a comprehensive development plan. The conservation of natural resources and increasing productivity of irrigated lands are also strategic necessities. Much of the current technology is highly transferable and crop yields can be significantly increased on lands already under irrigation.The authors have worked in many countries in connection with resource inventories, teaching, and the planning, development and use of irrigation as a tool for increasing production and providing employment. They have written extensively and have been honored for their achievements. They have considerable experience with everything from primitive low-technology irrigation developments to highly developed irrigation in the USA and in dozens of countries around the world. Both of the authors have dedicated their careers to teaching, research, and consulting in agricultural irrigation and water resources development and planning. It is their hope and expectation that this book will provide incentives for investigating and documenting land and water resources, improving development, increasing crop yields, conserving resources, and improving the environment. From the Table of Contents:Chapt. 1 - INTRODUCTION: Irrigation Fundamentals: - - A Definition of Irrigation - - Statistical Perspectives of Agricultural IrrigationChapt. 2 - FACTORS INFLUENCING CROP PRODUCTION: - - Introduction - - Temperature, Radiation, and Evaporative Potential - - Climate Change - - Soil Fertility and Fertilizers - - Water Availability and Distribution - - Soil Aeration and Drainage - - Plant Density, Spacing and Leaf Area Index - - Crop VarietyChapt. 3 - AGRICULTURAL SOILS: - - Introduction - - Soil Texture and Structure - - Soil Classification and Evaluation - - Bureau of Reclamation Land Classification - - Soil Age and Topography - - Soil Chemistry - - Infiltration Rates - - Soil-Water Relationships - - Equations for Soil Water Content - - Soil Water Potential - - Measuring Soil Water ContentChapt. 4 - EVALUATING IRRIGATION RESOURCES: - - Introduction - - Climate - - Hydrology - - Human and Other Factors - - Integrated DevelopmentChapt. 5 - IRRIGATION METHODS: - - Introduction - - Graded Border Irrigation - - Basin Irrigation - - Contour Levees - - Furrow Irrigation - - Sub-Irrigation - - Sprinkle Irrigation - - Drip or Trickle Irrigation - - Selecting an Irrigation Method - - Land Grading and Leveling - - Laser-Leveling Equipment and Practices - - Computing Diagonal Slopes - - Irrigation System EvaluationChapt. 6 - CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS: - - Introduction - - Direct Methods - - Indirect Methods - - Potential Evaporation - - Reference Evapotranspiration - - Extraterrestrial Solar Radiation - - Irrigation Requirements - - Crop CoefficientsChapt. 7 - IRRIGATION SCHEDULING: - - Introduction - - Allowable Water Depletion - - Monitoring Soil Water - - Scheduling Irrigations - - Rice Irrigation

Product Details :

Genre: Technology & Engineering
Author: George H. Hargreaves
Publisher: Water Resources Publication
Release: 1998
File: 182 Pages
ISBN-13: 1887201106

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Agriculture is one of the few industries that has been creating resources conti- ously from nature. Sustainability of this industry is a crucial issue at now-a-days. Agricultural technologies are important to feed the growing world population. Agricultural engineering has been applying scienti?c principles for the optimal use of natural resources in agricultural production for the bene?t of humankind. The role of agricultural engineering is increasing in the coming days at the forthcoming challenges of producing more food with less water coupled with climate uncertainty. I am happy to know that a book entitled "Fundamentals of Irrigation and On-farm Water Management", written by Engr. Dr. M. H. Ali, is going to be p- lished by Springer. The book is designed to cover the major ?elds of agricultural and environmental engineering such as weather, plant, soil, water, and basics of on-farm water management. The book will be quite useful for the students of agricultural engineering. Students of other related branches of engineering s- ences, and engineers working in the ?eld and at research institutes will also be beni?ted. The book may serve as a text book for the students and as a practical hand-book for the practitioners and researchers in the ?eld of irrigation and on-farm water management. Utilization of the recent literature in the area and citation of relevant journals / reports have added a special value to this book. Considering the topics covered, engineers, scientists, practitioners, and educators will ?nd this book as a valuable resource.

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Genre: Technology & Engineering
Author: Hossain Ali
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release: 2010-09-08
File: 560 Pages
ISBN-13: 1441963359

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Smallholder irrigation systems–where farm sizes generally range from a fraction of a hectare to 10 hectares–pose special management problems, especially where the water available for irrigation is frequently less than the demand. The intensity of system adjustments required to meet individual farmer demands, and the administrative complexity of measuring and accounting water deliveries have generally proven excessive when attempting to meet “on demand” schedules, resulting in chaos (often characterized by illegal tampering with infrastructure, and vast differences of water use intensity at different locations in the system). The alternative–provision of a simple service, based on proportional sharing of available supplies on the basis of landholdings–has been resilient for many years over vast areas. The approach is based on a clear delineation between the part of the irrigation system that is actively managed (at various flow rates and water levels) and the part of the system that operates either at full supply level (with proportional division of water down to the level at which farmers rotate among their individual farms), or is completely shut. This operational design is known as a “structured” system, and has well-defined hydraulic characteristics, simplifying operation and management, in turn allowing a clearer definition of water entitlements and the responsibilities of agency staff and farmers. The approach is particularly suited to areas where water is scarce and discipline is needed to ration water among users. An additional benefit, which has been demonstrated in modeling studies using a well–proven model relating to water and yield, is that the productivity of water (which is more important than the more traditional productivity of land when water is scarce) is substantially increased when deficit irrigation is practiced–a widely observed and predictable response to rationed water supplies. Structured systems are most suited where water is scarce, clear definition of water entitlements is needed, management capacity is limited, and investment resources are limited. The approach to determining critical aspects of a structured system design is described in this report.

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Genre: Farms, Small
Author: B. Albinson
Publisher: IWMI
Release: 2002
File: 21 Pages
ISBN-13: 9789290904717

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Introduces the principles of turfgrass management, covering everything from basic turfgrass science to fertilization, mowing, turfgrass diseases, irrigation topdressing, pest management, as well as career paths, and much more.

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Genre: Architecture
Author: Nick Christians
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release: 2011-07-12
File: 398 Pages
ISBN-13: 9780470587317

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Genre: Irrigation engineering
Author: Bharata Si mha
Publisher:
Release: 1979
File: 571 Pages
ISBN-13: OCLC:50149029

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The book is co-authored by a registrar in ophthalmology and a highly experienced consultant ophthalmologist, who teaches on the Royal College of Ophthalmologists' Microsurgical Skills Course. Observing that trainee ophthalmic surgeons are often introduced to phacoemulsification surgery with little previous microsurgical experience, Anderson and Butcher realised the need for a concise, yet comprehensive, text that describes a single safe way to perform this operation. Addressing this gap in the market, this book will assist trainee ophthalmic surgeons to perform uncomplicated, rewarding surgery. The authors provide an unambiguous explanation of surgical steps, complemented by extensive use of high quality colour photographs and diagrams. Descriptions of operative steps are detailed and, importantly, assume no prior knowledge of phacoemulsification surgery. The book is structured logically so that users can quickly find information most relevant to their immediate requirements in theatre.

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Genre: Eye
Author: Matthew Anderson
Publisher: Troubador Publishing Ltd
Release: 2011
File: 100 Pages
ISBN-13: 9781848765177

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The reuse of wastewater in irrigation is being practiced only recently to solve water scarcity problems in agriculture. Management of water, soil, crop, and operational procedures, including precautions to protect farm workers, play an important role in the successful use of sewage effluent for irrigation. Appropriate water management practices must be followed to prevent salinization. If salt is not flushed out of the root zone by leaching and removed from the soil by effective drainage, salinity problems can build up rapidly. Leaching and drainage are, thus, two important water management practices to avoid salinization of soils. One of the options that may be available to farmers is the blending of treated sewage with conventional sources of water to obtain a blended water of acceptable salinity level. This important book focuses on the use of wastewater as a valuable resource for agricultural micro irrigation purposes. It covers effective wastewater management practices in a variety of climates, including semi-arid regions and others; how to perform effective evaluations to gauge the quality of the water on plants, including potatoes, maize, and eggplant; and the cost–benefit of using wastewater. It addresses the sources of wastewater for irrigation and the problems along with challenges, including water quality, clogging, soil quality, and more. The mission of this compendium is to serve as a reference manual for professionals in biological and civil engineering, horticulture, soil and crop science, and agronomy, as well as for graduate and undergraduate students in related fields. It will be a valuable reference for professionals who work with micro irrigation/wastewater and water management, for technical agricultural centers, irrigation centers, agricultural extension services, and other agencies that work with micro irrigation programs.

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Genre: Technology & Engineering
Author: Megh R. Goyal
Publisher: CRC Press
Release: 2016-01-05
File: 474 Pages
ISBN-13: 9781498727396

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In Indian context.

Product Details :

Genre: Limnology
Author: Arvind Kumar
Publisher: APH Publishing
Release: 2005
File: 243 Pages
ISBN-13: 8176489190

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The Handbook of Irrigation System Selection for Semi-Arid Regions compares the various types of available irrigation systems for different regions and conditions, and explains how to analyze field data to determine the suitability of the land for surface, sprinkle, or drip irrigation systems. The book focuses on strategies for irrigation development and management and examines deficit irrigation and partial root-zone drying systems. Also, solute leaching modeling under different irrigation systems, soil moisture conditions, and organic fertilizer application in arid areas are discussed. Further, it examines multi-criteria decision making for irrigation management and the appraisal of agricultural lands for irrigation in hot, sub-humid regions. Features: Presents comparative analysis to aid in the selection of the most appropriate types of irrigation systems according to land characteristics. Includes numerous practical case studies. Offers parametric evaluation systems for irrigation purposes. Considers data from semi-arid zones, each with different sub-climates. Focusing on semi-arid land, the book highlights parametric evaluation systems for irrigation purposes, along with the use of analytical hierarchy processes integrated with GIS to determine which systems are best suited. This comprehensive and well-illustrated handbook will be of great interest to students, professionals, and researchers involved with all aspects of irrigation in semi-arid regions.

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Genre: Technology & Engineering
Author: Mohammad Albaji
Publisher: CRC Press
Release: 2020-07-22
File: 324 Pages
ISBN-13: 9781000090802

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Presenting essential nursing fundamentals in an easy-to-read, fun-to-learn format, this resource provides comprehensive coverage of the theoretical foundations of nursing, the nursing process, basic nursing skills, physiologic patient care, and the latest nursing concepts. Includes illustrations, cartoons, and quizzes.

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Genre: Medical
Author: Karen C. Comerford
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release: 2007
File: 660 Pages
ISBN-13: 1582559309

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