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The growth of transnational corporations, the dominance of worldwide financial and political institutions, and the extensive influence of media that are nearly monopolized by corporate interests are key factors shaping our global society today. What are the consequences of these developments for the great masses of people throughout the world? One clearly emerging pattern is the growing disparity between the developed nations and the rest of the world. In this excellent analysis of power distribution and its effects, sociologist Jerry Kloby presents data on the increase of wealth and income inequality, and argues that many of the policies pursued by the developed nations and international corporations have led to a deterioration of living standards and the environment in many parts of the world. He also discusses a power shift in the United States that has weakened the working class. One of the great strengths of Kloby's work is the comprehensive picture he creates from many diverse events and trends--local and international, contemporary and historical. The many graphs and tables containing supporting data add a visual element that guides the reader to a clear understanding of the complex forces underlying contemporary developments. He also clearly explains the meaning and relevance of such sophisticated but important terms as neoliberalism, dependency, civil society, and social capital. This fully revised and updated edition will have enduring value for students and scholars of sociology, political science, economics, and international relations.

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Genre : Social Science
Author : Jerry Kloby
Publisher : Prometheus Books
Release : 2004
File : 417 Pages
ISBN-13 : STANFORD:36105114394112

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Researchers in international development have long argued that the high costs of doing business harms prosperity in developing countries, a claim that invites the question of why governments impose these costs and why societies fail to enact reforms reducing them. This book seeks to answer the question by looking at the case of Brazil, a large and highly unequal economy riddled with state-imposed transaction costs. By delving into the political dynamics underlying a costly business environment, this book provides the reader with novel insights into crony capitalism and inequality. It argues that the root cause of a costly business environment is the collusion between political actors, bureaucrats and business insiders. Politicians and bureaucrats relish their discretion over rules and policies as a power resource, since they can increase or decrease the costs of doing business faced by firms and sectors. Business insiders collude with government agents to access the loopholes that decrease the cost of doing business, thus gaining a competitive edge over outsiders. This gives the insiders weaker preferences for reforms that could decrease the overall cost of doing business. By pursuing their self-interest, these actors create a low-level equilibrium that perpetuates crony capitalism and inequality, to the detriment of overall prosperity. The book makes its case with a sophisticated combination of formal modelling, quantitative analyses and in-depth case studies of tax policy and of the pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors in Brazil. Observers have declared the need for reforms that improve the business environment in developing countries for a long time. However, the findings presented in this book suggests they might have underestimated the challenge ahead. Scholars and policy-makers in international development, business politics and political economy will be interested in the innovative perspective of this book.

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Genre : Business & Economics
Author : Danilo Rocha Limoeiro
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2020-07-13
File : 208 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9781000088663

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This book offers an innovative, interdisciplinary approach to thinking about inequality, and to understanding how inequality is produced and reproduced in the global South. Without the safety net of the various Northern welfare states, inequality in the global South is not merely a socio-economic problem, but an existential threat to the social contract that underpins the democratic state and society itself. Only a response that is firmly grounded in the context of the global South can hope to address this problem. This collection brings together scholars from across the globe, with a particular focus on the global South, to address broad thematic areas such as the conceptual and methodological challenges of measuring inequality; the political economy of inequality in the global South; inequality in work, households and the labour market; and inequalities in land, spaces and cities. The book concludes by suggesting alternatives for addressing inequality in the global South and around the world. The pioneering ideas and theories put forward by this volume make it essential reading for students and researchers of global inequality across the fields of sociology, economics, law, politics, global studies and development studies.

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Genre : Social Science
Author : David Francis
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2020-05-25
File : 272 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9781000061918

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This book is about the causes and consequences of economic inequality in the advanced market economies of today. It is common that in market systems people choose their own individual economic destinies, but of course the choices people make are importantly determined by the alternatives available to them: unequal opportunity is the critical determinant of economic disparities. This begs the question; from where do the vast inequalities of opportunity arise? This book theorizes that power and social class are the real crux of economic inequality. Most of mainstream economics studiously eschews questions involving social power, preferring to focus instead on "individual choice subject to constraint" in contexts of "well-functioning markets". Yet both "extra-market" power structures and power structures arising from within the market system itself are unavoidably characteristic of real-world market-based economies. The normal working of labor and financial markets engenders an inherent wealth-favoring bias in the distribution of opportunities for occupational choice. But that bias is greatly compounded by the economic, social, political and cultural power structures that constitute the class system. For those power structures work to distribute economic benefit to class elites, and are in turn undergirded by the disparities of wealth they thus help engender. Inequality and Power offers an economic analysis of the power structures constituting that class system: employers’ power over employees; the power of certain businesses over others; professionals’ power over their clients and other employees; cultural power in the media and education systems; and political power in "democratic" government. Schutz argues that a "class analysis" of the trend of increasing economic inequality today is superior to the mainstream economic analysis of that trend. After considering what is wrong with power-based inequality in term of criteria of distributive justice and economic functionality, the book concludes with an outline of various possible correctives. This book should be of interest to students and researchers in economics, sociology, political science and philosophy, as well as anyone interested in the theories of social class.

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Genre : Business & Economics
Author : Eric A. Schutz
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2011-03-21
File : 256 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9781136811388

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Poverty and Power argues that American poverty is not due to individual failings but rather to broader structural forces. The third edition features new material on the current political climate, the shortage of quality job opportunities, the implications of the Trump presidency, and more.

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Genre : Social Science
Author : Edward Royce
Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield
Release : 2018-06-07
File : 378 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9781538110461

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In terms accessible to non-economists, Marcos José Mendes describes the ways democracy and inequality produce low growth in the short and medium terms. In the longer term, he argues that Brazil has two paths in front of it. One is to create the conditions necessary to boost economic performance and drive the country toward a high level of development. The other is to fail in untying the political knot that blocks growth, leaving it a middle-income country. The source of his contrasting futures for Brazil is inequality, which he demonstrates is a relevant variable in any discussion of economic growth. Inequality illuminates causes of seemingly-unconnected problems. This book, which includes freely-accessible documents and datasets, is the first in-depth analysis of an issue that promises to become increasingly prominent. Contrasting visions of Brazil’s future described in economic terms Easy-to-understand graphs and tables illustrate analytical arguments All Excel-based data available on a freely-accessible website

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Genre : Business & Economics
Author : Marcos Mendes
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-11-20
File : 280 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9780128019658

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Despite the fact that the globalization process tends to reinforce existing inequality structures and generate new areas of inequality on multiple levels, systematic analyses on this very important field remain scarce. Hence, this book approaches the complex question of inequality not only from different regional perspectives, covering Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin and Northern America, but also from different disciplinary perspectives, namely cultural anthropology, economics, ethnology, geography, international relations, sociology, and political sciences. The contributions are subdivided into three essential fields of research: Part I analyzes the socio-economic dimension of global exclusion, highlighting in particular the impacts of internationalization and globalization processes on national social structures against the background of theoretical concepts of social inequality. Part II addresses the political dimension of global inequalities. Since the decline of the Soviet Union new regional powers like Brazil, China, India and South Africa have emerged, creating power shifts in international relations that are the primary focus of the second part. Lastly, Part III examines the structural and transnational dimension of inequality patterns, which can be concretized in the rise of globalized national elites and the emergence of multinational networks that transcend the geographical and imaginative borders of nation states.

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Genre : Political Science
Author : Alexander Lenger
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-12-03
File : 284 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9783662447666

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The book outlines a journey from enabling models of government and business to strategies for creating both financial and social inclusion and entrepreneurism as mechanisms for sustainable and inclusive growth.

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Genre : Business & Economics
Author : Howard Thomas
Publisher : Emerald Group Publishing
Release : 2019-04-10
File : 152 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9781789737813

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This report examines the links between inequality and other major global trends (or megatrends), with a focus on technological change, climate change, urbanization and international migration. The analysis pays particular attention to poverty and labour market trends, as they mediate the distributional impacts of the major trends selected. It also provides policy recommendations to manage these megatrends in an equitable manner and considers the policy implications, so as to reduce inequalities and support their implementation.

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Genre : Social Science
Author : Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Publisher : United Nations
Release : 2020-02-14
File : 216 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9789210043670

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An innovative approach to measuring inequality providing the first full integration of distributional and macro level data for the US.

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Genre : Business & Economics
Author : Lance Taylor
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2020-08-31
File : 170 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9781108494632

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