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I wanted to compute 80th term of the Fibonacci series. I wrote the rampant recursive function, int fib(int n){ return (1==n || 2==n) ? 1 : fib(n-1) + fib(n-2); } and waited for the result. I wait… and wait… and wait… With an 8GB RAM and an Intel i5 CPU, why is it taking so long? I terminated the process and tried computing the 40th term. It took about a second. I put a check and was shocked to find that the above recursive function was called 204,668,309 times while computing the 40th term. More than 200 million times? Is it reporting function calls or scam of some government? The Dynamic Programming solution computes 100th Fibonacci term in less than fraction of a second, with a single function call, taking linear time and constant extra memory. A recursive solution, usually, neither pass all test cases in a coding competition, nor does it impress the interviewer in an interview of company like Google, Microsoft, etc. The most difficult questions asked in competitions and interviews, are from dynamic programming. This book takes Dynamic Programming head-on. It first explain the concepts with simple examples and then deep dives into complex DP problems.

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Genre: Computers
Author: Meenakshi
Publisher: Notion Press
Release: 2017-01-18
File: 142 Pages
ISBN-13: 9781946556707

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I wanted to compute 80th term of the Fibonacci series. I wrote the rampant recursive function, int fib(int n){ return (1==n 2==n) ? 1: fib(n-1) + fib(n-2); } and waited for the result. I wait... and wait... and wait... With an 8GB RAM and an Intel i5 CPU, why is it taking so long? I terminated the process and tried computing the 40th term. It took about a second. I put a check and was shocked to find that the above recursive function was called 204,668,309 times while computing the 40th term. More than 200 million times? Is it reporting function calls or scam of some government? The Dynamic Programming solution computes 100th Fibonacci term in less than fraction of a second, with a single function call, taking linear time and constant extra memory. A recursive solution, usually, neither pass all test cases in a coding competition, nor does it impress the interviewer in an interview of company like Google, Microsoft, etc. The most difficult questions asked in competitions and interviews, are from dynamic programming. This book takes Dynamic Programming head-on. It first explain the concepts with simple examples and then deep dives into complex DP problems.

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Genre: Computers
Author: Meenakshi
Publisher: Notion Press
Release: 2017-01-16
File: 144 Pages
ISBN-13: 1946556696

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Dynamic Programming is a fundamental algorithmic technique which is behind solving some of the toughest computing problems.In this book, we have covered some Dynamic Programming problems which will give you the general idea of formulating a Dynamic Programming solution and some practice on applying it on a variety of problems.Some of the problems we have covered are: * Permutation coefficientThis is a basic problem but is significant in understanding the idea behind Dynamic Programming. We have used this problem to: * Present the two core ideas of Dynamic Programming to make the idea clear and help you understand what Dynamic Programming mean. * Show another approach which can same performance (in terms of time complexity) and understand how it is different from our Dynamic Programming approach* Longest Common SubstringThis is an important problem as we see how we can apply Dynamic Programming in string problems. In the process, we have demonstrated the core ideas of handling string data which helps in identifying the cases when Dynamic Programming is the most efficient approach.* XOR valueThis is another significant problem as we are applying Dynamic Programming on a Number Theory problem more specifically problem involving subset generation. The search space is exponential in size but with our efficient approach, we can search the entire data in polynomial time which is a significant improvement.This brings up a fundamental power of Dynamic Programming: Search exponential search space in polynomial time* K edgesIn line with our previous problems, in this problem, we have applied Dynamic Programming in a graph-based problem. This is a core problem as in this we learn that: * Dynamic Programming makes the solution super-efficient * Extending the Dynamic Programming solution using Divide and Conquer enables us to solve it more efficientlyThis problem shows a problem where Dynamic Programming is not the most efficient solution but is in the right path.We have covered other relevant solutions and ideas as well so that you have the complete idea of the problems and understand deeply the significance of Dynamic Programming in respect to the problems.This book has been carefully prepared and reviewed by Top programmers and Algorithmic researchers and members of OpenGenus. We would like to thank Aditya Chatterjee and Ue Kiao for their expertise in this domain and reviews from professors at The University of Tokyo and Tokyo Institute of Technology.Read this book now and ace your upcoming coding interview. This is a must read for everyone preparing for Coding Interviews at top companies.

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Genre:
Author: Ue Kiao
Publisher:
Release: 2020-04-28
File: 52 Pages
ISBN-13: 9798640923216

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Strings are fundamental data type in real world and developing algorithms to deal with it is an important domain. In interviews, often, string algorithms are most insightful and challenging.In this guide for the day before your coding interview, we have explored some problems and demonstrated the thought process to solve it starting from the brute force solutions. In the process, we have covered all fundamental ideas along with applying Dynamic Programming to String algorithms so that you are able to solve all string-based problems. Some of the problems we have covered are: - Check substring: This is an important fundamental problem where we learn how strings can be handled just like numeric data and algorithms for numeric data can be leveraged.Some of the core concepts we explored are string hashing, rolling hash and much more.- Longest common substring: This is a core problem as this uses the concepts we gained in the previous problems and an alternative solution is to use Dynamic Programming.The core idea is to apply Dynamic Programming over two different string data.- Longest repeating substring: In line with our previous problem, we explored how to apply Dynamic Programming for this problem. The key distinction is that we are dealing with just 1 string instead of 2 strings as in the previous problem. Unlike the previous problem, the Dynamic Programming approach is the only optimal solution.With these problems and the thought process to solve them, you will be fully prepared.This book has been carefully prepared and reviewed by Top programmers and Algorithmic researchers and members of OpenGenus. We would like to thank Aditya Chatterjee and Ue Kiao for their expertise in this domain and reviews from professors at The University of Tokyo and Tokyo Institute of Technology.Read this book now and ace your upcoming coding interview. This is a must read for everyone preparing for Coding Interviews at top companies.Books in this series ("Day before coding Interview"): - Problems for the day before your coding interview- Greedy Algorithms for the day before your Coding Interview- Dynamic Programming for the day before your coding interview- String Algorithms for the day before your Coding Interview

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Genre:
Author: Ue Kiao
Publisher:
Release: 2020-05-11
File: 40 Pages
ISBN-13: 9798645079598

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This book is about coding interview questions from software and Internet companies. It covers five key factors which determine performance of candidates: (1) the basics of programming languages, data structures and algorithms, (2) approaches to writing code with high quality, (3) tips to solve difficult problems, (4) methods to optimize code, (5) soft skills required in interviews. The basics of languages, algorithms and data structures are discussed as well as questions that explore how to write robust solutions after breaking down problems into manageable pieces. It also includes examples to focus on modeling and creative problem solving. Interview questions from the most popular companies in the IT industry are taken as examples to illustrate the five factors above. Besides solutions, it contains detailed analysis, how interviewers evaluate solutions, as well as why they like or dislike them. The author makes clever use of the fact that interviewees will have limited time to program meaningful solutions which in turn, limits the options an interviewer has. So the author covers those bases. Readers will improve their interview performance after reading this book. It will be beneficial for them even after they get offers, because its topics, such as approaches to analyzing difficult problems, writing robust code and optimizing, are all essential for high-performing coders.

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Genre: Computers
Author: Harry He
Publisher: Apress
Release: 2013-01-31
File: 304 Pages
ISBN-13: 9781430247623

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If you have an upcoming coding interview, this is a must for you to read this book 💪 and get prepared to tackle ALGORITHM and DATA STRUCTURE problems in a day. In this book, we have solved insightful algorithmic problems and discussed some of the best insights to drive you into the problem solving mindset. Being in a mindset required for an upcoming event is like winning half the battle. In this book, we begin with an easy problem and go on to explore some tough and insightful problems. The first problem we presented is to delete minimum number of digits in a number to make it a perfect square. This might seem to be a simple problem but the insights involved in solving this is widely applicable across various Algorithmic problems. This problem is solved in time complexity of O(N ^ (1/3) x logN x logN) (think how?) Moreover, in solving the above problem, we have learnt how to generate all combinations/ subsets of a set efficiently. In this line, we have covered other ideas related to combination and permutation generation in other problems in this book. Some of the ideas we covered in the other problems are: * Augmented data structures: How modifying a data structure can improve the complexity greatly. * How a single data structure can have multiple states? and algorithms to interchange them * Concepts related to string comparison and searching (MUST READ + VERY IMPORTANT) * Basic insightful ideas in Number theory and solved a couple of problems related to it * Understanding how number of operations can be reduced greatly without impacting time complexity. * Insightful understanding and analysis of Heap's algorithm for permutation generation (VERY IMPORTANT + RARE) * These problems have covered domains like Graph Theory, Dynamic Programming, Greedy Algorithms, Number Theory, Divide and Conquer and much more. In short, we have carefully chosen the problems to give you idea of: * Basic yet widely asked concepts like combination and permutation generation, forming Dynamic Programming solutions, applying greedy algorithms * Doing a detailed complexity analysis * Proceed in solving the problem in steps and understand deeply why the solution works This book has been prepared and reviewed by Top programmers and Algorithmic researchers and members of OpenGenus. We would like to thank Aditya Chatterjee and Ue Kiao for their expertise in this domain and reviews from Tokyo Institute of Technology. Read this book now and ace your upcoming coding interview 💪 If you have a doubt regarding some algorithmic problem or want some addition/ modification to this book, feel free to get in touch with us or leave a review comment 😃

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Genre: Computers
Author: Aditya Chatterjee
Publisher: OpenGenus
Release: 2020-03-23
File: 52 Pages
ISBN-13:

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Now in the 5th edition, Cracking the Coding Interview gives you the interview preparation you need to get the top software developer jobs. This book provides: 150 Programming Interview Questions and Solutions: From binary trees to binary search, this list of 150 questions includes the most common and most useful questions in data structures, algorithms, and knowledge based questions. 5 Algorithm Approaches: Stop being blind-sided by tough algorithm questions, and learn these five approaches to tackle the trickiest problems. Behind the Scenes of the interview processes at Google, Amazon, Microsoft, Facebook, Yahoo, and Apple: Learn what really goes on during your interview day and how decisions get made. Ten Mistakes Candidates Make -- And How to Avoid Them: Don't lose your dream job by making these common mistakes. Learn what many candidates do wrong, and how to avoid these issues. Steps to Prepare for Behavioral and Technical Questions: Stop meandering through an endless set of questions, while missing some of the most important preparation techniques. Follow these steps to more thoroughly prepare in less time.

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Genre: Computers
Author: Gayle Laakmann McDowell
Publisher: CreateSpace
Release: 2011
File: 500 Pages
ISBN-13: 1466208686

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Have you ever... - Wanted to work at an exciting futuristic company? - Struggled with an interview problem that could have been solved in 15 minutes? - Wished you could study real-world computing problems? If so, you need to read Elements of Programming Interviews (EPI). EPI is your comprehensive guide to interviewing for software development roles. The core of EPI is a collection of over 250 problems with detailed solutions. The problems are representative of interview questions asked at leading software companies. The problems are illustrated with 200 figures, 300 tested programs, and 150 additional variants. The book begins with a summary of the nontechnical aspects of interviewing, such as strategies for a great interview, common mistakes, perspectives from the other side of the table, tips on negotiating the best offer, and a guide to the best ways to use EPI. We also provide a summary of data structures, algorithms, and problem solving patterns. Coding problems are presented through a series of chapters on basic and advanced data structures, searching, sorting, algorithm design principles, and concurrency. Each chapter stars with a brief introduction, a case study, top tips, and a review of the most important library methods. This is followed by a broad and thought-provoking set of problems. A practical, fun approach to computer science fundamentals, as seen through the lens of common programming interview questions. Jeff Atwood/Co-founder, Stack Overflow and Discourse

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Genre: Computers
Author: Adnan Aziz
Publisher: EPI
Release: 2019-12-02
File: Pages
ISBN-13:

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Daily Coding Problem contains a wide variety of questions inspired by real programming interviews, with in-depth solutions that clearly take you through each core concept. You'll learn about: * Linked Lists * Arrays * Heaps * Trees * Graphs * Randomized Algorithms * Backtracking * Dynamic Programming * Stacks and Queues * Bit Manipulation * System Design

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Genre:
Author: Alex Miller
Publisher:
Release: 2019-01-31
File: 299 Pages
ISBN-13: 1793296634

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Searching & sorting algorithms form the back bone of coding acumen of developers. This book comprehensively covers In-depth tutorial & analysis of all major algorithms and techniques used to search and sort across data structures. All major variations of each algorithm (e.g. Ternary, Jump, Exponential, Interpolation are variations of Binary search). 110 real coding interview questions as solved examples and unsolved problems. Case studies of implementation of searching and sorting in language libraries. Introduction to how questions are asked and expected to answer on online competitive coding and hiring platforms like hackerrank.com, codechef.com, etc. Introduction to data structures.

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Genre: Computers
Author: Meenakshi, Kamal Rawat
Publisher: Notion Press
Release: 2017-11-07
File: 278 Pages
ISBN-13: 9781947988231

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