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This text presents statistical methods for studying causal effects and discusses how readers can assess such effects in simple randomized experiments.

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Genre : Business & Economics
Author : Guido W. Imbens
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2015-04-06
File : 625 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9780521885881

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David A. Freedman presents a definitive synthesis of his approach to statistical modeling and causal inference in the social sciences.

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Genre : Mathematics
Author : David A. Freedman
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2010
File : 399 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9780521195003

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Many of the concepts and terminology surrounding modern causal inference can be quite intimidating to the novice. Judea Pearl presents a book ideal for beginners in statistics, providing a comprehensive introduction to the field of causality. Examples from classical statistics are presented throughout to demonstrate the need for causality in resolving decision-making dilemmas posed by data. Causal methods are also compared to traditional statistical methods, whilst questions are provided at the end of each section to aid student learning.

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Genre : Mathematics
Author : Judea Pearl
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2016-01-25
File : 160 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9781119186861

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Matched sampling is often used to help assess the causal effect of some exposure or intervention, typically when randomized experiments are not available or cannot be conducted. This book presents a selection of Donald B. Rubin's research articles on matched sampling, from the early 1970s, when the author was one of the major researchers involved in establishing the field, to recent contributions to this now extremely active area. The articles include fundamental theoretical studies that have become classics, important extensions, and real applications that range from breast cancer treatments to tobacco litigation to studies of criminal tendencies. They are organized into seven parts, each with an introduction by the author that provides historical and personal context and discusses the relevance of the work today. A concluding essay offers advice to investigators designing observational studies. The book provides an accessible introduction to the study of matched sampling and will be an indispensable reference for students and researchers.

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Genre : Mathematics
Author : Donald B. Rubin
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2006-09-04
File : Pages
ISBN-13 : 9781139458504

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We hear that a glass of red wine prolongs life, that alcohol is a carcinogen, that pregnant women should drink not a drop of alcohol. Major medical journals first claimed that hormone replacement therapy reduces the risk of heart disease, then reversed themselves and said it increases the risk of heart disease. What are the effects caused by consuming alcohol or by receiving hormone replacement therapy? These are causal questions, questions about the effects caused by treatments, policies or preventable exposures. Some causal questions can be studied in randomized trials, in which a coin is flipped to decide the treatment for the next experimental subject. Because randomized trials are not always practical, nor always ethical, many causal questions are investigated in non-randomized observational studies. The reversal of opinion about hormone replacement therapy occurred when a randomized clinical trial contradicted a series of earlier observational studies. Using minimal mathematics--high school algebra and coin flips--and numerous examples, Observation and Experiment explains the key concepts and methods of causal inference. Examples of randomized experiments and observational studies are drawn from clinical medicine, economics, public health and epidemiology, clinical psychology and psychiatry.--

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Genre : Mathematics
Author : Paul Rosenbaum
Publisher :
Release : 2019-08
File : 400 Pages
ISBN-13 : 0674241630

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Written by one of the preeminent researchers in the field, this book provides a comprehensive exposition of modern analysis of causation. It shows how causality has grown from a nebulous concept into a mathematical theory with significant applications in the fields of statistics, artificial intelligence, economics, philosophy, cognitive science, and the health and social sciences. Judea Pearl presents and unifies the probabilistic, manipulative, counterfactual, and structural approaches to causation and devises simple mathematical tools for studying the relationships between causal connections and statistical associations. Cited in more than 2,100 scientific publications, it continues to liberate scientists from the traditional molds of statistical thinking. In this revised edition, Judea Pearl elucidates thorny issues, answers readers' questions, and offers a panoramic view of recent advances in this field of research. Causality will be of interest to students and professionals in a wide variety of fields. Dr Judea Pearl has received the 2011 Rumelhart Prize for his leading research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and systems from The Cognitive Science Society.

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Genre : Science
Author : Judea Pearl
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2009-09-14
File : Pages
ISBN-13 : 9781139643986

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Did mandatory busing programs in the 1970s increase the school achievement of disadvantaged minority youth? Does obtaining a college degree increase an individual's labor market earnings? Did the use of the butterfly ballot in some Florida counties in the 2000 presidential election cost Al Gore votes? If so, was the number of miscast votes sufficiently large to have altered the election outcome? At their core, these types of questions are simple cause-and-effect questions. Simple cause-and-effect questions are the motivation for much empirical work in the social sciences. This book presents a model and set of methods for causal effect estimation that social scientists can use to address causal questions such as these. The essential features of the counterfactual model of causality for observational data analysis are presented with examples from sociology, political science, and economics.

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Genre : Social Science
Author : Stephen L. Morgan
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2007-07-30
File : Pages
ISBN-13 : 1139465902

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The mathematization of causality is a relatively recent development, and has become increasingly important in data science and machine learning. This book offers a self-contained and concise introduction to causal models and how to learn them from data. After explaining the need for causal models and discussing some of the principles underlying causal inference, the book teaches readers how to use causal models: how to compute intervention distributions, how to infer causal models from observational and interventional data, and how causal ideas could be exploited for classical machine learning problems. All of these topics are discussed first in terms of two variables and then in the more general multivariate case. The bivariate case turns out to be a particularly hard problem for causal learning because there are no conditional independences as used by classical methods for solving multivariate cases. The authors consider analyzing statistical asymmetries between cause and effect to be highly instructive, and they report on their decade of intensive research into this problem. The book is accessible to readers with a background in machine learning or statistics, and can be used in graduate courses or as a reference for researchers. The text includes code snippets that can be copied and pasted, exercises, and an appendix with a summary of the most important technical concepts.

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Genre : Computers
Author : Jonas Peters
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2017-11-22
File : 288 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9780262037310

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This textbook for graduate students in statistics, data science, and public health deals with the practical challenges that come with big, complex, and dynamic data. It presents a scientific roadmap to translate real-world data science applications into formal statistical estimation problems by using the general template of targeted maximum likelihood estimators. These targeted machine learning algorithms estimate quantities of interest while still providing valid inference. Targeted learning methods within data science area critical component for solving scientific problems in the modern age. The techniques can answer complex questions including optimal rules for assigning treatment based on longitudinal data with time-dependent confounding, as well as other estimands in dependent data structures, such as networks. Included in Targeted Learning in Data Science are demonstrations with soft ware packages and real data sets that present a case that targeted learning is crucial for the next generation of statisticians and data scientists. Th is book is a sequel to the first textbook on machine learning for causal inference, Targeted Learning, published in 2011. Mark van der Laan, PhD, is Jiann-Ping Hsu/Karl E. Peace Professor of Biostatistics and Statistics at UC Berkeley. His research interests include statistical methods in genomics, survival analysis, censored data, machine learning, semiparametric models, causal inference, and targeted learning. Dr. van der Laan received the 2004 Mortimer Spiegelman Award, the 2005 Van Dantzig Award, the 2005 COPSS Snedecor Award, the 2005 COPSS Presidential Award, and has graduated over 40 PhD students in biostatistics and statistics. Sherri Rose, PhD, is Associate Professor of Health Care Policy (Biostatistics) at Harvard Medical School. Her work is centered on developing and integrating innovative statistical approaches to advance human health. Dr. Rose’s methodological research focuses on nonparametric machine learning for causal inference and prediction. She co-leads the Health Policy Data Science Lab and currently serves as an associate editor for the Journal of the American Statistical Association and Biostatistics.

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Genre : Mathematics
Author : Mark J. van der Laan
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-03-28
File : 640 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9783319653044

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What constitutes a causal explanation, and must an explanation be causal? What warrants a causal inference, as opposed to a descriptive regularity? What techniques are available to detect when causal effects are present, and when can these techniques be used to identify the relative importance of these effects? What complications do the interactions of individuals create for these techniques? When can mixed methods of analysis be used to deepen causal accounts? Must causal claims include generative mechanisms, and how effective are empirical methods designed to discover them? The Handbook of Causal Analysis for Social Research tackles these questions with nineteen chapters from leading scholars in sociology, statistics, public health, computer science, and human development.

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Genre : Social Science
Author : Stephen L. Morgan
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-04-22
File : 424 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9789400760943

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