1453

BOOK EXCERPT:

A major study and an essential reference work, this book presents a critical evaluation of the sources on the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. In Part I: The Pen, drawing upon manuscript and printed sources, and looking at the contrasting interpretations in secondary works, the authors reassess the written evidence concerning the event. In Part II, The Sword, the investigation results in new conclusions concerning the layout of the Theodosian Walls, the offensive and defensive strategies of the Byzantines and Turks, including land and sea operations, and an analysis of some of the major engagements.

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Genre : History
Author : Marios Philippides
Publisher : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Release : 2011
File : 759 Pages
ISBN-13 : 1409410641

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Originally published by Prentice-Hall, 1972.

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Genre : Art
Author : Cyril A. Mango
Publisher : University of Toronto Press
Release : 1986-01-01
File : 272 Pages
ISBN-13 : 0802066275

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Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825, an elegant new book created by a team of leading historians in collaboration with The New York Public Library, traces Russia's development from an insular, medieval, liturgical realm centered on Old Muscovy, into a modern, secular, world power embodied in cosmopolitan St. Petersburg. Featuring eight essays and 120 images from the Library's distinguished collections, it is both an engagingly written work and a striking visual object. Anyone interested in the dramatic history of Russia and its extraordinary artifacts will be captivated by this book. Before the late fifteenth century, Europeans knew virtually nothing about Muscovy, the core of what would become the "Russian Empire." The rare visitor--merchant, adventurer, diplomat--described an exotic, alien place. Then, under the powerful tsar Peter the Great, St. Petersburg became the architectural embodiment and principal site of a cultural revolution, and the port of entry for the Europeanization of Russia. From the reign of Peter to that of Catherine the Great, Russia sought increasing involvement in the scientific advancements and cultural trends of Europe. Yet Russia harbored a certain dualism when engaging the world outside its borders, identifying at times with Europe and at other times with its Asian neighbors. The essays are enhanced by images of rare Russian books, illuminated manuscripts, maps, engravings, watercolors, and woodcuts from the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries, as well as the treasures of diverse minority cultures living in the territories of the Empire or acquired by Russian voyagers. These materials were also featured in an exhibition of the same name, mounted at The New York Public Library in the fall of 2003, to celebrate the tercentenary of St. Petersburg.

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Genre : History
Author : Cynthia H. Whittaker
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2003
File : 208 Pages
ISBN-13 : 067401278X

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A documented narrative history of the Byzantine Empire from 1261 until its fall in 1453.

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Genre : History
Author : Donald M. Nicol
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1993-10-14
File : 463 Pages
ISBN-13 : 0521439914

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A radical reappraisal of the relationship between 'east' and 'west' is currently underway. Critical approaches to the early modern period have too often tacitly assumed a binary opposition between a civilised Christendom and the encroaching barbarity of the 'infidel'. Whilst the conquest of Constantinople of 1453 did indeed became a potent symbol of Ottoman imperial ambition, the complexity of the cultural negotiations in the myriad encounters - diplomatic, mercantile, religious and military - of the following years refutes the Euro-centric assumptions of traditional historiography. 1453 to 1699: Cultural Encounters between East and West seeks to bring together exciting new work in this emerging field from across the international academic community. The product of a successful inter-disciplinary conference, this volume engages with fields of history, cultural studies, art history, literary theory and anthropology, comprehensively remapping the complex contours of East-West encounters. In the light of current world events, the need to historicise and contextualise this relationship is more urgent than ever.

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Genre : Social Science
Author : Matthew Birchwood
Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Press
Release : 2005
File : 234 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9781904303411

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A gripping exploration of the fall of Constantinople and its connection to the world we live in today. The fall of Constantinople in 1453 signaled a shift in history and the end of the Byzantium Empire. Roger Crowley's readable and comprehensive account of the battle between Mehmet II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantine XI, the 57th emperor of Byzantium, illuminates the period in history that was a precursor to the current conflict between the West and the Middle East.

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Genre : Religion
Author : Roger Crowley
Publisher : Hachette Books
Release : 2013-02-12
File : 336 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9781401305581

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Mark C. Bartusis opens an extraordinary window on the Byzantine Empire during its last centuries by providing the first comprehensive treatment of the dying empire's military. The late Byzantine period was a time characterized by both civil strife and foreign invasion and framed by two cataclysmic events: the fall of Constantinople to the western Europeans in 1204 and again to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. While the army enjoyed a highly visible presence during this time, it was increasingly ineffective in defending the state. This failure is central to understanding the persistence of the western European crusader states in the Aegean, the advance of the Ottoman Turks into Europe, and the slow decline and eventual fall of the thousand-year Byzantine Empire. Using all of the available Greek, western European, Slavic, and Turkish sources, Bartusis describes the evolution of the army both as an institution and as an instrument of imperial policy. He considers the army's size, organization, administration, and varieties of soldiers, including discussions of campaigns, garrisons, finances, recruitment, and the military role of peasants, weapons, and equipment. He also examines Byzantine feudalism and the army's impact on the economy and society. Bartusis emphasizes that the corps of heavily armed mercenaries and soldiers probably never numbered more than several hundred. He further argues that the composition of the late Byzantine army had many parallels with the contemporary armies in western Europe, including the extensive use of soldier companies composed of foreign mercenaries. In a final analysis, he suggests that the death of Byzantium is attributable more to a shrinking fiscal base thanto any lack of creative military thinking on the part of its leaders. The Late Byzantine Army is a major work of scholarship that fills a gap in the understanding of the late Byzantine empire. It will be of interest to students and scholars of medieval and Byzantine institutional history.

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Genre : History
Author : Mark C. Bartusis
Publisher : University of Pennsylvania Press
Release : 1997
File : 438 Pages
ISBN-13 : 0812216202

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Introduction to Byzantium, 602–1453 provides students with an accessible guide to medieval Byzantium. Beginning with the near collapse of Byzantium in the seventh century, the book traces its survival and development through to its absorption by the Ottoman empire. As well as having an overall political narrative, the chapters cover a wide range of topics including society and economy, art and architecture, literature and education, military tactics and diplomacy, gender and education. They also explore themes that remain prominent and highly debated today, including relations between Islam and the West, the impact of the Crusades, the development of Russia, and the emergence of Orthodox Christianity. Comprehensively written, each chapter provides an overview of the particular period or topic, a summary of the ongoing historiographical debates, primary source material textboxes, further reading recommendations and a ‘points to remember’ section. Introduction to Byzantium, 602–453 provides students with a thorough introduction to the history of Byzantium and equips them with the tools to write successful analytical essays. It is essential reading for any student of the history of the Byzantine empire.

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Genre : History
Author : Jonathan Harris
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2020-04-13
File : 298 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9781351368773

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Constantine XI’s last moments in life, as he stood before the walls of Constantinople in 1453, have bestowed a heroic status on him. This book produces a more balanced portrait of an intriguing individual: the last emperor of Constantinople. To be sure, the last of the Greek Caesars was a fascinating figure, not so much because he was a great statesman, as he was not, and not because of his military prowess, as he was neither a notable tactician nor a soldier of exceptional merit. This monarch may have formulated grandiose plans but his hopes and ambitions were ultimately doomed, because he failed to inspire his own subjects, who did not rally to his cause. Constantine lacked the skills to create, restore, or maintain harmony in his troubled realm. In addition, he was ineffective on the diplomatic front, as he proved unable to stimulate Latin Christendom to mount an expedition and come to the aid of south-eastern Orthodox Europe. Yet in sharp contrast to his numerous shortcomings, his military defeats, and the various disappointments during his reign, posterity still fondly remembers the last Constantine.

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Genre : History
Author : Marios Philippides
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-09-07
File : 520 Pages
ISBN-13 : 9781351055406

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While their victory ensured the Turks' survival, the conquest of Constantinople marked the end of Byzantine civilization for the Greeks, by triggering the scholarly exodus that caused an influx of Classical studies into the European Renaissance.

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Genre : History
Author : Steven Runciman
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1965
File : 256 Pages
ISBN-13 : 0521398320

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